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Vergil's Verb Tips
Welcome to Vergil's Verb Tips Page.  Here you will learn all you need to know to negotiate your way successfully through Latin verbal forms such as infinitives, participles, ablative absolute (Mr. A's favorite construction), gerunds and gerundives, and the supine.  Construction will obviously take some time.  More information may be available on the links to your left.  Check out the following tables for basic assistance: infinitives, participles, supines, ablative absolute (including new exercises by me), reduplicating verbs, and gerunds and gerundives, now available in .pdf format.  Check out the forms of every deponent verb in Ecce Romani II and Cambridge Unit 3 here.  Coming soon: inchoatives and semideponent verbs.  Help for our friends using Cambridge Latin Course.
JUST ADDED: Practice participles with Vergil's Aeneid.
last updated: ante diem tertium Nonas Semptembres, A.D. duo milia sex
VERGIL'S VERB TIPS: THE INFINITIVE
If the verb form ends in . . . . . . it's this kind of infinitive: . . .and is normally translated as follows:
-āre / -ēre / -ere / -īre / -esse (sum and its compounds) present active to X
-ārī / -ērī / -ī / -īrī present passive to be X'ed
present active of deponent verbs to X
(3rd principal part stem +)-isse (but nōsse common for nōvisse) perfect active to have X'ed
-us/-a/um (4th principal part) + esse perfect passive to have been X'ed
perfect active of deponent verbs to have X'ed
(4th principal part stem +)-ūrus/-a/-um + esse (but fore common for futûrus esse) future active to be about to X
-um (neuter 4th principal part) + īrī future passive to be about to be X'ed
VERGIL'S VERB TIPS: THE PARTICIPLE
If the participle ends in . . . . . . it's this kind of participle . . . and is normally translated as follows:
-āns / -ēns / -iēns (genitive singular: -ntis) present active X'ing
-tus/-ta/-tum or -sus/-sa/-sum (= 4th principal part) perfect passive (having been) X'ed
perfect active of deponent verbs having X'ed
-tūrus/-a/-um or -sūrus/-a/-um (4th principal part stem + -ûrus/-a/-um) future active about to X
-andus/-a/-us or -endus/-a/-um or -iendus/-a/-um (verb stem minus any vowel/s + endings) future passive (a.k.a. gerundive) (needing) to be X'ed
VERGIL'S VERB TIPS: THE SUPINE
If the supine is . . . . . . it will take this form . . . . . . and be used with . . . . . . and be translated as follows:
accusative (4th principal part)-um motion verbs (particularly eō) to X
ablative (4th principal part)-ū an adjective as an ablative of respect to X
Ablative Absolute (selected online sources of information with evaluative commentary)

Here's an excellent site that teaches you everything you need to know about the "Rolls Royce" of Latin grammar constructions.  It even tells you to start by adding "with" to your translation.  Great preparation for Caesar.  Click around a bit to read other commentary at the same site.

More commentary, almost as good, but I'd always start translating by adding "with" first, then refining.  These are the people who have given us some of our Ecce Romani 1 links.  You can do some practice and compare your answers with theirs.

Practice Exercises

My exercise to practice Ablative Absolute by Retelling the Judgment of Paris
My exercise to practice Ablative Absolute with the Story of the Nemean Lion
My exercise to practice Ablative Absolute with the Second through Fourth Labors of Hercules
My exercise to practice Ablative Absolute by Retelling Hercules among the Centaurs
My exercise to practice Ablative Absolute by Retelling Ulysses and the Cyclops
Participle Practice

Great Comparison of Regular and Deponent Verbs
1.  Identify 20
2.  Match Types 1
3.  Match Types 2
4.  All Dat. Plural
   (and abl. pl.)
6.  All Genitive
7.  Forms for
     regular verbs
8.  Forms for
    deponent verbs
9.  Identify participles: Aen. 1
10. Identify participles: Aen. 2

DEPONENT VERBS in ECCE ROMANI II and CAMBRIDGE UNIT 3
NOTE: Deponent verbs are active in form but passive in meaning. They have three principal parts. The third principal part consists of a participle + a form of sum. In the table that follows you will see the masculine singular form of the participle. In other circumstances the participle might be feminine or neuter or plural.
MODEL OF PRINCIPAL PARTS
Principal Part Sample Form Identification Translation
1st Principal Part proficīscor (1st person singular present active indicative) I set out
2nd Principal Part proficīscī (present active infinitive) to set out
3rd Principal Part profectus sum (1st person singular perfect active indicative) I have set out
FIRST CONJUGATION
admīror admīrārī admīrātus sum marvel at
comitor comitārī comitātus sum accompany
cōnor cōnārī cōnātus sum try
cōnspicor cōnspicārī cōnspicātus sum catch sight of
grātulor + dative grātulārī grātulātus sum congratulate
hortor hortārī hortātus sum encourage, urge on
luctor luctārī luctātus sum wrestle
mīror mīrārī mīrātus sum wonder, admire
moror morārī morātus sum delay
precor precārī precātus sum pray
rixor rixārī rixātus sum quarrel
suspicor supicārī suspicātus sum suspect
SECOND CONJUGATION
polliceor pollicērī pollicitus sum promise
vereor verērī veritus sum fear
THIRD CONJUGATION
adipīscor adipīscī adeptus sum obtain
alloquor alloquī allocūtus sum speak to, address
amplector amplectī amplexus sum embrace
collābor collābī collāpsus sum collapse
colloquor colloquī collocūtus sum converse, speak together
cōnsequor consequī consecūtus sum pursue
expigīscor expigīscī experrēctus sum wake up
lābor lābī lāpsus sum slip, glide
loquor loquī locūtus sum speak
nāscor nāscī nātus sum be born
persequor persequī persecūtus sum pursue
proficīscor proficīscī profectus sum set out
sequor sequī secūtus sum follow
subsequor subsequī subsecūtus sum follow (up)
ulcīscor ulcīscī ultus sum avenge
ūtor ūtī ūsus sum use + ablative
vescor + abl. vescī ------- eat
THIRD-IŌ CONJUGATION
aggredior aggredī aggressus sum approach, attack
congredior congredī congressus sum come together
ēgredior ēgredī ēgressus sum go out
ingredior ingredī ingressus sum enter
morior morī mortuus sum die
prōgredior prōgredī prōgressus sum advance
regredior regredī regressus sum go back, return
trānsgredior trānsgredī trānsgressus sum cross
FOURTH CONJUGATION
adorior adorīrī adortus sum attack
coorior coorīrī coortus sum arise
experior experīrī expertus sum test / prove
ōrdior ōrdīrī orsus sum begin
orior orīrī ortus sum rise
Need help with verbs?
Send your questions.  As time permits, I'll try to help you.  Priority for my students.  Best tip of all: MEMORIZE!!
REDUPLICATING VERBS
Reduplicating verbs are those Latin verbs that form their perfect tenses by repeating their initial sound in the creation of the 3rd principal part. Reduplication is a very ancient component of Indo-European languages. Very common in Ancient Greek, Latin possesses a handful of these verbs. Reduplication was even a feature of Old English, where the verb "go" was originally "gangan." The following list of verbs is by no means exhaustive, but many of these occur in the standard textbooks. Students of Latin would do well simply to learn these verbs by heart since there is no standard pattern at work in their construction.
1st Principal Part 2nd Principal Part 3rd Principal Part 4th Principal Part Meaning
cadō cadere cecidī cāsus fall, be slain
caedō caedere cecīdī caesus cut (down), slay
canō canere cecinī cantus sing, predict
currō currere cucurrī cursus run
discō discere didicī none learn
dare dedī datus give, grant
fallō fallere fefellī falsus deceive, trick
mordeō mordēre momordī morsus bite
parcō parcere pepercī parsus spare
pariō parere peperī partus bear, produce
pendeō pendēre pependī pēnsus weigh, hang
poscō poscere poposcī none demand, ask
spondeō spondēre spopondī spōnsus pledge
tangō tangere tetigī tāctus touch
tondeō tondēre totondī tōnsus clip, shave
tundō tundere tutudī tū(n)sus strike
Thanks for visiting.  Back to top.  Back to Main Classics Page.  Back to Index.
The Original Vergil's Verb Tips: The Infinitive
The Original Vergil's Verb Tips: The Infinitive
The Original Vergil's Verb Tips: The Participle
The Original Vergil's Verb Tips: The Participle
The Original Vergil's Verb Tips:              The Supine
The Original Vergil's Verb Tips:              The Supine
Coming Soon: More on Gerunds and Gerundives.  Thanks for your patience and interest in the topic.  Click the globe to the left for some information on the topic.
The Original Vergil's Verb Tips: Gerunds and Gerundives
The Original Vergil's Verb Tips: Gerunds and Gerundives
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Deponent Practice

Principal Parts
1. Ecce 37 verbs
2. Other deponents

Form Matching of
Ecce 37 Verbs
1. Matching 1
2. Matching 2
3. Matching 3
4. Matching 4
5. Matching 5

Deponent Identify
for Ecce 37 Verbs
1. Identification 1
2. Identification 2
3. Identification 3
4. Identification 4
More Identification
1. Identification 5
2. Identfication 6

Verb Synopses
Ecce 37 Verbs
1. Synopsis 1
2. Synopsis 2
Other Synopses
1. Synopsis 3
2. Synopsis 4

Formation Quizzes
Ecce 37 Verbs
1. Quiz 1
2. Quiz 2
Other Deponents
3. Quiz 3
4. Quiz 4


CAMBRIDGE LATIN COURSE VERBS

Specific Help for Friends and Colleagues Using the Cambridge Latin Course:

The following .pdf files contain the principal parts for every verb in Units 1 and 2, alphabetized by conjugation.  Fruantur!  You may need the free Acrobat Reader.

Stages 1-4 (includes rules for present tense, explanation of principal parts, and present of sum)
Stages 5-6 (includes summaries of imperfect and perfect formation)
Stages 7-8 (includes imperfect of sum)
Stages 9-10 (includes information about irregular verbs eô and ferô and the imperative)
Stages 11-12
Stages 13-14 (includes forms of and information about irregular verbs possum, volô, and nôlô)
Stages 15-16 (includes pluperfect formation and introduction to the semideponent verb audeô)
Stages 17-18
Stages 19-20 (includes present and imperfect of fîô)
Latin Verb Formation General

Use this .pdf file to help you learn to form all forms of regular Latin verbs, all tenses, active and pasive, indicative and subjunctive:

LATIN VERB FORMATION SUMMARY


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Acrobat Reader.
Vergil's Verb Tips: Gerunds and Gerundives
Now available in neater, easy-to-read .pdf format.  You may need Acrobat Reader to open the file.  (Look to your right for more information.)
Vergil's Verb Tips: The Supine
Now available in neater, easy-to-read .pdf format.  You may need Acrobat Reader to open the file. 
Vergil's Verb Tips: The Participle
Now available in neater, easy-to-read .pdf format.  You may need Acrobat Reader to open the file. 
Vergil's Verb Tips: The Infinitive
Now available in neater, easy-to-read .pdf format.  You may need Acrobat Reader to open the file.  (Look just above to your right for more information.)