Basic Tense Endings
-ō/-m -mus
-s -tis
-t -nt
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Basic Passive Endings
-r -mur
-ris -minÓ
-tur -ntur
Perfect Active Endings
-imus
-istī -istis
-it -ērunt
Pronoun Translation by Person and Number
Singular Plural
1st I we
2nd you you (all)
3rd he/she/it they
Future Active Tense Formation
1st and 2nd Conjugations 3rd and 4th Conjugations
-bō -bimus -am -ēmus
-bis -bitis -ēs -ētis
-bit -bunt -et -ent
Future Tense of sum
erō erimus
eris eritis
erit erunt
Imperfect Active Tense Formation
-bam -bāmus
-bās -bātis
-bat -bant
Imperfect Tense of sum
eram erāmus
erās erātis
erat erant
PRINCIPAL PARTS OF EVERY VERB IN ECCE ROMANI I
ATTENTION, VISITORS: This list contains forms found in various Latin dictionaries but not necessarily in Ecce Romani I. This is based on Mr. Abney's views on Latin principal parts. Forms as listed in the book are indicated in the footnotes at the bottom. Consult your own teacher about using all the 4th principal parts given here.
MODEL OF PRINCIPAL PARTS
Principal Part Sample Form and Identification Translation
1st Principal Part dīcō (1st person singular present active indicative) I say / am saying / do say
2nd Principal Part dīcere (present active infinitive) to say
3rd Principal Part dīxī (1st person singular perfect active indicative) I said / did say / have said
4th Principal Part dictus (perfect passive participle) having been said
FIRST CONJUGATION VERBS
Memorize the irregular 1st Conjugation forms indicated by all capital letters.
accūsō accūsāre accūsāvī accūsātus
ADIUVŌ ADIUVĀRE ADIŪVĪ ADIŪTUS
aedificiō aedificāre aedificāvī aedificātus
ambulō ambulāre ambulāvī ambulātus1
amō amāre amāvī amātus
appellō appellāre appellāvī appellātus
appropinquō appropinquāre appropinquāvī appropinquātus2
cantō cantāre cantāvī cantātus
cēlō cēlāre cēlāvī cēlātus
cēnō cēnāre cēnāvī cēnātus
cessō cessāre cessāvī cessātus3
clāmō clāmāre clāmāvī clāmātus
cōgitō cōgitāre cōgitāvī cōgitātus
convocō convocāre convocāvī convocātus
cūrō cūrāre cūrāvī cūrātus
dēlectō dēlectāre dēlectāvī dēlectātus
dēmōnstrō dēmōnstrāre dēmōnstrāvī dēmōnstrātus
dēsiderō dēsiderāre dēsiderāvī dēsiderātus
dēvorō dēvorāre dēvorāvī dēvorātus
DARE DEDĪ DATUS
errō errāre errāvī errātus4
excitō excitāre excitāvī excitātus
exclāmō exclāmāre exclāmāvī exclāmātus
explicō explicāre explicāvī explicātus
exspectō exspectāre exspectāvī exspectātus
festīnō festīnāre festīnāvī festīnātus
habitō habitāre habitāvī habitātus
incitō incitāre incitāvī incitātus
interpellō interpellāre interpellāvī interpellātus
intrō intrāre intrāvī intrātus
labōrō labōrāre labōrāvī labōrātus
lacrimō lacrimāre lacrimāvī lacrimātus
lātrō lātrāre lātrāvī lātrātus5
laudō laudāre laudāvī laudātus
LAVŌ LAVĀRE LĀVĪ LAUTUS
mōnstrō mōnstrāre mōnstrāvī mōnstrātus
mussō mussāre mussāvī mussātus
nārrō nārrāre nārrāvī nārrātus
nāvigō nāvigāre nāvigāvī nāvigātus6
necō necāre necāvī necātus
observō observāre observāvī observātus
parō parāre parāvī parātus
pernoctō pernoctāre pernoctāvī pernoctātus
portō portāre portāvī portātus
praecipitō praecipitāre praecipitāvī praecipitātus
pugnō pugnāre pugnāvī pugnātus7
purgō purgāre purgāvī purgātus
recuperō recuperāre recuperāvī recuperātus
revocō revocāre revocāvī revocātus
rogō rogāre rogāvī rogātus
saltō saltāre saltāvī saltātus8
salūtō salūtāre salūtāvī salūtātus
servō servāre servāvī servātus
simulō simulāre simulāvī simulātus
spectō spectāre spectāvī spectātus
STŌ STĀRE STETĪ STATUS9
temptō temptāre temptāvī temptātus
verberō verberāre verberāvī verberātus
VETŌ VETĀRE VETUĪ VETITUS
vexō vexāre vexāvī vexātus
vigilō vigilāre vigilāvī vigilātus10
vīsitō vīsitāre vīsitāvī vīsitātus
vītō vītāre vītāvī vītātus
SECOND CONJUGATION VERBS
admoveō admovēre admōvī admōtus
appāreō appārēre appāruī -------11
augeō augēre auxī auctus
caveō cavēre cāvī cautus
cēnseō cēnsēre cēnsuī cēnsus
dēbeō dēbēre dēbuī dēbitus12
doceō docēre docuī doctus
doleō dolēre doluī -------13
faveō favēre fāvī -------14
gaudeō gaudēre (gāvīsus sum)15
habeō habēre habuī habitus
haereō haerēre haesī -------16
iaceō iacēre iacuī -------17
iubeō iubēre iussī iussus
licet licēre licuit (impersonal: only 3rd sing.)
lūceō lūcēre lūxī ------- (usually 3rd sing.)
maneō manēre mānsī mānsus18
moveō movēre mōvī mōtus
noceō nocēre nocuī -------19
obsideō obsidēre obsēdī obsessus
removeō removēre remōvī remōtus
respondeō respondēre respondī respōnsus20
rīdeō rīdēre rīsī rīsus
sedeō sedēre sēdī sessus21
soleō solēre (solitus sum)15
stupeō stupēre stupuī -------
taceō tacēre tacuī tacitus
taedet taedēre taeduit / (taesum est)15 (impersonal: only 3rd sing.)
teneō tenēre tenuī tentus
terreō terrēre terruī territus
timeō timēre timuī -------
videō vidēre vīdī vīsus
THIRD CONJUGATION VERBS
accidō accidere accidī (only used in book in 3rd singular)
advesperāscit advesperāscere advesperāvit (only used in 3rd singular)
agnōscō agnōscere agnōvī agnitus
agō agere ēgī āctus
alō alere aluī al(i)tus
ascendō ascendere ascendī ascēnsus
cadō cadere cecidī cāsus22
claudō claudere clausī clausus
colō colere coluī cultus
concidō concidere concidī -------
condō condere condidī conditus
condūcō condūcere condūxī conductus
cōnfīdō cōnfīdere (cōnfīsus sum)15
cōnsidō cōnsidere cōnsēdī cōnsessus23
cōnstituō cōnstituere cōnstituī cōnstitūtus
cōnsulō cōnsulere cōnsuluī cōnsultus
coquō coquere coxī coctus
currō currere cucurrī cursus24
dēfendō dēfendere dēfendī dēfēnsus
dēscendō dēscendere dēscendī dēscēnsus
dēvertō dēvertere dēvertī dēversus
dīcō dīcere dīxī dictus
discēdō discēdere discessī discessus25
dūcō dūcere dūxī ductus
emō emere ēmī emptus
extendō extendere extendī extentus
extrahō extrahere extrāxī extractus
gemō gemere gemuī gemitus
gerō gerere gessī gestus
induō induere induī indūtus
inūrō inūrere inussī inustus
lambō lambere lambī lambitus
legō legere lēgī lēctus
lūdō lūdere lūsī lūsus26
mittō mittere mīsī missus
[This next verb is the ancient attested form of the verb presented as obdormiō in chapter 21.]
obdormīscō obdormīscere obdormīvī -------
occurrō occurere occurrī occursus27
petō petere petīvī petītus
pluit pluere pluit / plūvit (usually only 3rd singular)
pōnō pōnere posuī positus
praecurrō praecurrere praecucurrī28/praecurrī praecursus29
prōmittō prōmittere prōmīsī prōmissus
quiēscō quiēscere quiēvī quiētus30
regō regere rēxī rēctus
relinquō relinquere relīquī relictus
repellō repellere reppulī repulsus
reprehendō reprehendere reprehendī reprehēnsus
scrībō scrībere scrīpsī scrīptus
stertō stertere stertuī -------
stringō stringere strīnxī strictus
sūmō sūmere sūmpsī sūmptus
surgō surgere surrēxī surrēctus31
trādō trādere trādidī trāditus
trahō trahere trāxī tractus
tremō tremere tremuī -------
vertō vertere vertī versus
vincō vincere vīcī victus
THIRD--IŌ CONJUGATION
arripiō arripere arripuī arreptus
capiō capere cēpī captus
cōnficiō cōnficere cōnfēcī cōnfectus
coniciō conicere coniēcī coniectus
cōnspiciō cōnspicere cōnspexī cōnspectus
effugiō effugere effūgī effugitus32
excipiō excipere excēpī exceptus
faciō facere fēcī factus
fugiō fugere fūgī fugitus33
iaciō iacere iēcī iactus
īnspiciō īnspicere īnspexī īnspectus
olfaciō olfacere olfēcī olfactus
perficiō perficere perfēcī perfectus
FOURTH CONJUGATION VERBS
adveniō advenīre advēnī adventus34
aperiō aperīre aperuī apertus
audiō audīre audīvī audītus
custōdiō custōdīre custōdīvī custōdītus
dormiō dormīre dormīvī dormītus35
ēsuriō ēsurīre ēsurīvī -------36
feriō ferīre ferīvī ferītus
fīniō fīnīre fīnīvī fīnītus
impediō impedīre impedīvī impedītus
inveniō invenīre invēnī inventus
nesciō nescīre nescīvī nescītus
[This next form from chapter 21 is unattested in ancient sources.]
obdormiō obdormīre obdormīvī obdormītus37
pūniō pūnīre pūnīvī pūnītus
sciō scīre scīvī scītus
veniō venīre vēnī ventus38
IRREGULAR VERBS
Memorize these forms. Pay special attention to the capitalized key verbs.
abeō abīre abiī / abīvī abitus39
absum abesse āfuī -------40
adsum adesse adfuī -------41
circumeō circumīre circumiī / circumīvī circumitus
ĪRE IĪ / ĪVĪ ITUS42
exeō exīre exiī / exīvī exitus43
FERŌ FERRE TULĪ LĀTUS
NŌLŌ NŌLLE NŌLUĪ -------
POSSUM POSSE POTUĪ -------
praetereō praeterīre praeteriī / praeterīvī praeteritus
redeō redīre rediī / redīvī reditus44
SUM ESSE FUĪ -------45
VOLŌ VELLE VOLUĪ -------
FOOTNOTES
1ambulō 4th form in text: ambulātūrus
2appropinquō 4th form in text: appropinquātūrus
3cessō 4th form in text: cessātūrus
4errō 4th form in text: errātūrus
5lātrō 4th form in text: lātrātūrus
6nāvigō 4th form in text: nāvigātārus
7pugnō 4th form in text: pugnātūrus
8saltō 4th form in text: saltātūrus
9stō 4th form in text: statūrus
10vigilō 4th form in text: vigilātūrus
11appāreō 4th form in text: appāritūrus
12dēbeō 4th form in text: dēbitūrus
13doleō 4th form in text: dolitūrus
14faveō 4th form in text: fautūrus
15Four verbs in this list form their perfect tenses in an unusual way: gaudeō / soleō / cōnfīdō / and one variation of the impersonal verb taedet. None of the 4th principal parts listed above occurs in the textbook. Instead of using the standard perfect endings + 3rd principal part, these verbs use a participial form + forms of sum. Participle forms change to match the number and gender of the subject of the sentence. Translate them just as you would any other perfect tense verb; do not translate the sum form. These verbs are called semideponent verbs.
SAMPLE SEMIDEPONENT VERB TRANSLATION
(The first form of the participle is masculine and the second feminine. There will obviously be no neuter possibilities for gaudeō since only males and females can rejoice.)
gāvīsus / gāvīsa sum (I rejoiced)
gāvīsus / gāvīsa es (you rejoiced)
gāvīsus / gāvīsa est (he rejoiced / she rejoiced)
gāvīsī / gāvīsae sumus (we rejoiced)
gāvīsī / gāvīsae estis (you rejoiced)
gāvīsī / gāvīsae sunt (they rejoiced)
16haereō 4th form in text: haesūrus
17iaceō 4th form in text: iacitūrus
18maneō demonstrates the inconsistency of the principles behind Ecce Romani: in many books the 4th form is mānsūrus
19noceō 4th form in text: nocitūrus
20respondeō 4th form in text: respōnsūrus
21sedeō 4th form in text: sessūrus
22cadō 4th form in text: cāsūrus
22cōnsīdō no 4th form in text
24currō 4th form in text: cursūrus
25discēdō 4th form in text: discessūrus
26lūdō 4th form in text: lūsūrus
27occurrō 4th form in text: occursūrus
28praecurrō praecucurrī not in text; preferred by Lewis and Short
29praecurrō 4th form in text: praecursūrus
30quiēscō 4th form in text: quiētūrus
31surgō 4th form in text: surrēctūrus
32effugiō no 4th form in text
33fugiō no 4th form in text
34adveniō 4th form in text: adventūrus
35dormiō 4th form in text: dormītūrus
36ēsuriō 4th form in text: ēsuritūrus
37obdormiō 4th form in text: obdormītūrus
38veniō 4th form in text: ventūrus
39abeō 4th form in text: abitūrus
40absum 4th form in text: āfutūrus
41adsum 4th form in text: adfutūrus
42 4th form in text: itūrus
43exeō 4th form in text: exitūrus
44redeō 4th form in text: reditūrus
45sum 4th form in text: futūrus