PRINCIPAL PARTS OF EVERY VERB IN ECCE ROMANI I

ATTENTION, VISITORS: This list contains forms found in various Latin dictionaries but not necessarily in Ecce Romani I. This is based on Mr. Abney's views on Latin principal parts. Forms as listed in the book are indicated in the footnotes at the bottom. Consult your own teacher about using all the 4th principal parts given here.

MODEL OF PRINCIPAL PARTS

Principal Part

Sample Form and Identification

Translation

1st Principal Part

dīcō (1st person singular present active indicative)

I say / am saying / do say

2nd Principal Part

dīcere (present active infinitive)

to say

3rd Principal Part

dīxī (1st person singular perfect active indicative)

I said / did say / have said

4th Principal Part

dictus (perfect passive participle)

having been said

FIRST CONJUGATION VERBS

Memorize the irregular 1st Conjugation forms indicated by all capital letters.

accūsō

accūsāre

accūsāvī

accūsātus

ADIUVŌ

ADIUVĀRE

ADIŪVĪ

ADIŪTUS

aedificiō

aedificāre

aedificāvī

aedificātus

ambulō

ambulāre

ambulāvī

ambulātus1

amō

amāre

amāvī

amātus

appellō

appellāre

appellāvī

appellātus

appropinquō

appropinquāre

appropinquāvī

appropinquātus2

cantō

cantāre

cantāvī

cantātus

cēlō

cēlāre

cēlāvī

cēlātus

cēnō

cēnāre

cēnāvī

cēnātus

cessō

cessāre

cessāvī

cessātus3

clāmō

clāmāre

clāmāvī

clāmātus

cōgitō

cōgitāre

cōgitāvī

cōgitātus

convocō

convocāre

convocāvī

convocātus

cūrō

cūrāre

cūrāvī

cūrātus

dēlectō

dēlectāre

dēlectāvī

dēlectātus

dēmōnstrō

dēmōnstrāre

dēmōnstrāvī

dēmōnstrātus

dēsiderō

dēsiderāre

dēsiderāvī

dēsiderātus

dēvorō

dēvorāre

dēvorāvī

dēvorātus

DARE

DEDĪ

DATUS

errō

errāre

errāvī

errātus4

excitō

excitāre

excitāvī

excitātus

exclāmō

exclāmāre

exclāmāvī

exclāmātus

explicō

explicāre

explicāvī

explicātus

exspectō

exspectāre

exspectāvī

exspectātus

festīnō

festīnāre

festīnāvī

festīnātus

habitō

habitāre

habitāvī

habitātus

incitō

incitāre

incitāvī

incitātus

interpellō

interpellāre

interpellāvī

interpellātus

intrō

intrāre

intrāvī

intrātus

labōrō

labōrāre

labōrāvī

labōrātus

lacrimō

lacrimāre

lacrimāvī

lacrimātus

lātrō

lātrāre

lātrāvī

lātrātus5

laudō

laudāre

laudāvī

laudātus

LAVŌ

LAVĀRE

LĀVĪ

LAUTUS

mōnstrō

mōnstrāre

mōnstrāvī

mōnstrātus

mussō

mussāre

mussāvī

mussātus

nārrō

nārrāre

nārrāvī

nārrātus

nāvigō

nāvigāre

nāvigāvī

nāvigātus6

necō

necāre

necāvī

necātus

observō

observāre

observāvī

observātus

parō

parāre

parāvī

parātus

pernoctō

pernoctāre

pernoctāvī

pernoctātus

portō

portāre

portāvī

portātus

praecipitō

praecipitāre

praecipitāvī

praecipitātus

pugnō

pugnāre

pugnāvī

pugnātus7

purgō

purgāre

purgāvī

purgātus

recuperō

recuperāre

recuperāvī

recuperātus

revocō

revocāre

revocāvī

revocātus

rogō

rogāre

rogāvī

rogātus

saltō

saltāre

saltāvī

saltātus8

salūtō

salūtāre

salūtāvī

salūtātus

servō

servāre

servāvī

servātus

simulō

simulāre

simulāvī

simulātus

spectō

spectāre

spectāvī

spectātus

STŌ

STĀRE

STETĪ

STATUS9

temptō

temptāre

temptāvī

temptātus

verberō

verberāre

verberāvī

verberātus

VETŌ

VETĀRE

VETUĪ

VETITUS

vexō

vexāre

vexāvī

vexātus

vigilō

vigilāre

vigilāvī

vigilātus10

vīsitō

vīsitāre

vīsitāvī

vīsitātus

vītō

vītāre

vītāvī

vītātus

SECOND CONJUGATION VERBS

admoveō

admovēre

admōvī

admōtus

appāreō

appārēre

appāruī

-------11

augeō

augēre

auxī

auctus

caveō

cavēre

cāvī

cautus

cēnseō

cēnsēre

cēnsuī

cēnsus

dēbeō

dēbēre

dēbuī

dēbitus12

doceō

docēre

docuī

doctus

doleō

dolēre

doluī

-------13

faveō

favēre

fāvī

-------14

gaudeō

gaudēre

(gāvīsus sum)15

habeō

habēre

habuī

habitus

haereō

haerēre

haesī

-------16

iaceō

iacēre

iacuī

-------17

iubeō

iubēre

iussī

iussus

licet

licēre

licuit (impersonal: only 3rd sing.)

lūceō

lūcēre

lūxī

------- (usually 3rd sing.)

maneō

manēre

mānsī

mānsus18

moveō

movēre

mōvī

mōtus

noceō

nocēre

nocuī

-------19

obsideō

obsidēre

obsēdī

obsessus

removeō

removēre

remōvī

remōtus

respondeō

respondēre

respondī

respōnsus20

rīdeō

rīdēre

rīsī

rīsus

sedeō

sedēre

sēdī

sessus21

soleō

solēre

(solitus sum)15

stupeō

stupēre

stupuī

-------

taceō

tacēre

tacuī

tacitus

taedet

taedēre

taeduit / (taesum est)15 (impersonal: only 3rd sing.)

teneō

tenēre

tenuī

tentus

terreō

terrēre

terruī

territus

timeō

timēre

timuī

-------

videō

vidēre

vīdī

vīsus

THIRD CONJUGATION VERBS

accidō

accidere

accidī (only used in book in 3rd singular)

advesperāscit

advesperāscere

advesperāvit (only used in 3rd singular)

agnōscō

agnōscere

agnōvī

agnitus

agō

agere

ēgī

āctus

alō

alere

aluī

al(i)tus

ascendō

ascendere

ascendī

ascēnsus

cadō

cadere

cecidī

cāsus22

claudō

claudere

clausī

clausus

colō

colere

coluī

cultus

concidō

concidere

concidī

-------

condō

condere

condidī

conditus

condūcō

condūcere

condūxī

conductus

cōnfīdō

cōnfīdere

(cōnfīsus sum)15

cōnsidō

cōnsidere

cōnsēdī

cōnsessus23

cōnstituō

cōnstituere

cōnstituī

cōnstitūtus

cōnsulō

cōnsulere

cōnsuluī

cōnsultus

coquō

coquere

coxī

coctus

currō

currere

cucurrī

cursus24

dēfendō

dēfendere

dēfendī

dēfēnsus

dēscendō

dēscendere

dēscendī

dēscēnsus

dēvertō

dēvertere

dēvertī

dēversus

dīcō

dīcere

dīxī

dictus

discēdō

discēdere

discessī

discessus25

dūcō

dūcere

dūxī

ductus

emō

emere

ēmī

emptus

extendō

extendere

extendī

extentus

extrahō

extrahere

extrāxī

extractus

gemō

gemere

gemuī

gemitus

gerō

gerere

gessī

gestus

induō

induere

induī

indūtus

inūrō

inūrere

inussī

inustus

lambō

lambere

lambī

lambitus

legō

legere

lēgī

lēctus

lūdō

lūdere

lūsī

lūsus26

mittō

mittere

mīsī

missus

occurrō

occurere

occurrī

occursus27

petō

petere

petīvī

petītus

pluit

pluere

pluit / plūvit (usually only 3rd singular)

pōnō

pōnere

posuī

positus

praecurrō

praecurrere

praecucurrī28/praecurrī

praecursus29

prōmittō

prōmittere

prōmīsī

prōmissus

quiēscō

quiēscere

quiēvī

quiētus30

regō

regere

rēxī

rēctus

relinquō

relinquere

relīquī

relictus

repellō

repellere

reppulī

repulsus

reprehendō

reprehendere

reprehendī

reprehēnsus

scrībō

scrībere

scrīpsī

scrīptus

stertō

stertere

stertuī

-------

stringō

stringere

strīnxī

strictus

sūmō

sūmere

sūmpsī

sūmptus

surgō

surgere

surrēxī

surrēctus31

trādō

trādere

trādidī

trāditus

trahō

trahere

trāxī

tractus

tremō

tremere

tremuī

-------

vertō

vertere

vertī

versus

vincō

vincere

vīcī

victus

THIRDóIŌ CONJUGATION

arripiō

arripere

arripuī

arreptus

capiō

capere

cēpī

captus

cōnficiō

cōnficere

cōnfēcī

cōnfectus

coniciō

conicere

coniēcī

coniectus

cōnspiciō

cōnspicere

cōnspexī

cōnspectus

effugiō

effugere

effūgī

effugitus32

excipiō

excipere

excēpī

exceptus

faciō

facere

fēcī

factus

fugiō

fugere

fūgī

fugitus33

iaciō

iacere

iēcī

iactus

īnspiciō

īnspicere

īnspexī

īnspectus

olfaciō

olfacere

olfēcī

olfactus

perficiō

perficere

perfēcī

perfectus

FOURTH CONJUGATION VERBS

adveniō

advenīre

advēnī

adventus34

aperiō

aperīre

aperuī

apertus

audiō

audīre

audīvī

audītus

custōdiō

custōdīre

custōdīvī

custōdītus

dormiō

dormīre

dormīvī

dormītus35

ēsuriō

ēsurīre

ēsurīvī

-------36

feriō

ferīre

ferīvī

ferītus

fīniō

fīnīre

fīnīvī

fīnītus

impediō

impedīre

impedīvī

impedītus

inveniō

invenīre

invēnī

inventus

nesciō

nescīre

nescīvī

nescītus

obdormiō

obdormīre

obdormīvī

obdormītus37

pūniō

pūnīre

pūnīvī

pūnītus

sciō

scīre

scīvī

scītus

veniō

venīre

vēnī

ventus38

IRREGULAR VERBS

Memorize these forms. Pay special attention to the capitalized key verbs.

abeō

abīre

abiī / abīvī

abitus39

absum

abesse

āfuī

-------40

adsum

adesse

adfuī

-------41

circumeō

circumīre

circumiī / circumīvī

circumitus

ĪRE

IĪ / ĪVĪ

ITUS42

exeō

exīre

exiī / exīvī

exitus43

FERŌ

FERRE

TULĪ

LĀTUS

NŌLŌ

NŌLLE

NŌLUĪ

-------

POSSUM

POSSE

POTUĪ

-------

praetereō

praeterīre

praeteriī / praeterīvī

praeteritus

redeō

redīre

rediī / redīvī

reditus44

SUM

ESSE

FUĪ

-------45

VOLŌ

VELLE

VOLUĪ

-------

FOOTNOTES

1ambulō

4th form in text: ambulātūrus

2appropinquō

4th form in text: appropinquātūrus

3cessō

4th form in text: cessātūrus

4errō

4th form in text: errātūrus

5lātrō

4th form in text: lātrātūrus

6nāvigō

4th form in text: nāvigātārus

7pugnō

4th form in text: pugnātūrus

8saltō

4th form in text: saltātūrus

9stō

4th form in text: statūrus

10vigilō

4th form in text: vigilātūrus

11appāreō

4th form in text: appāritūrus

12dēbeō

4th form in text: dēbitūrus

13doleō

4th form in text: dolitūrus

14faveō

4th form in text: fautūrus

15Four verbs in this list form their perfect tenses in an unusual way: gaudeō / soleō / cōnfÓdō / and one variation of the impersonal verb taedet. None of the 3rd principal parts listed above occurs in the textbook. Instead of using the standard perfect endings + 3rd principal part, these verbs use a participial form + forms of sum. Participle forms change to match the number and gender of the subject of the sentence. Translate them just as you would any other perfect tense verb; do not translate the sum form. These verbs are called semi-deponent verbs.

SAMPLE SEMI-DEPONENT VERB

TRANSLATION

(The first form of the participle is masculine and the second feminine. There will obviously be no neuter possibilities for gaudeō since only males and females can rejoice.)

gāvīsus / gāvīsa sum

(I rejoiced)

gāvīsus / gāvīsa es

(you rejoiced)

gāvīsus / gāvīsa est

(he rejoiced / she rejoiced)

gāvīsī / gāvīsae sumus

(we rejoiced)

gāvīsī / gāvīsae estis

(you rejoiced)

gāvīsī / gāvīsae sunt

(they rejoiced)

16haereō

4th form in text: haesūrus

17iaceō

4th form in text: iacitūrus

18maneō demonstrates the inconsistency of the principles behind Ecce Romani: in many books the 4th form is mānsūrus

19noceō

4th form in text: nocitūrus

20respondeō

4th form in text: respōnsūrus

21sedeō

4th form in text: sessūrus

22cadō

4th form in text: cāsūrus

22cōnsīdō

no 4th form in text

24currō

4th form in text: cursūrus

25discēdō

4th form in text: discessūrus

26lūdō

4th form in text: lūsūrus

27occurrō

4th form in text: occursūrus

28praecurrō

praecucurrī not in text; preferred by Lewis and Short

29praecurrō

4th form in text: praecursūrus

30quiēscō

4th form in text: quiētūrus

31surgō

4th form in text: surrēctūrus

32effugiō

no 4th form in text

33fugiō

no 4th form in text

34adveniō

4th form in text: adventūrus

35dormiō

4th form in text: dormītūrus

36ēsuriō

4th form in text: ēsuritūrus

37obdormiō

4th form in text: obdormītūrus

38veniō

4th form in text: ventūrus

39abeō

4th form in text: abitūrus

40absum

4th form in text: āfutūrus

41adsum

4th form in text: adfutūrus

42

4th form in text: itūrus

43exeō

4th form in text: exitūrus

44redeō

4th form in text: reditūrus

45sum

4th form in text: futūrus