Flumen est Arar, quod per fines Haeduorum et Sequanorum in Rhodanum influit, incredibili lenitate, ita ut oculis in utram partem fluat iudicari non possit. Id Helvetii ratibus ac lintribus iunctis transibant. Ubi per exploratores Caesar certior factus est tres iam partes copiarum Helvetios id flumen traduxisse, quartam vero partem citra flumen Ararim reliquam esse, de tertiā vigiliā cum legionibus tribus e castris profectus ad eam partem pervenit quae nondum flumen transierat. Eos impeditos et inopinantes 5
aggressus magnam partem eorum concidit; reliqui sese fugae mandarunt atque in proximas silvas abdiderunt. Is pagus appellabatur Tigurinus; nam omnis civitas Helvetia in quattuor pagos divisa est. Hic pagus unus, cum domo exisset, patrum nostrorum memoria L. Cassium consulem interfecerat et eius exercitum sub iugum miserat. Ita sive casu sive consilio deorum immortalium quae pars civitatis Helvetiae insignem calamitatem populo Romano intulerat, eā princeps poenam persolvit. Quā in re 10
Caesar non solum publicas, sed etiam privatas iniurias ultus est, quod eius soceri L. Pisonis avum, L. Pisonem legatum, Tigurini eodem proelio quo Cassium interfecerant.
(Excerpts from Caesars's De bello Gallico available online here: ch. 12
1. What figure of speech occurs in per . . .
Sequanorum (line 1)?
2. According to oculis . . . possit, which of the
following best describes the Arar (line 1)?
3. How did the crossing occur according to
ratibus . . . transibant (line 2)?
They used a small fleet.
They built a pontoon bridge.
They were ferrying people across.
Some swam; others used boats.
4. What is Caesar suggesting by the use of
transibant (as confirmed in the next sentence)
The Helvetians had completed their crossing.
The Helvetians had not yet completed their
The Helvetians were about to attempt to cross.
The Helvetians' attempted crossing had proven
5. What is the correct translation of traduxisse in its
context (line 3)?
had been led across
would have led across
had led acrosss
to have led across
6. What is the breakdown of the Helvetians by this
point: tres . . .esse (lines 3-4)?
Three divisions of the army had crossed.
Three fourths still needed to cross.
Three fourths of the army had accompanied the
bulk of the Helvetians across.
Three fourths were on the western bank of the
river; one fourth remained on the east bank.
7. At what time is Caesar taking action according to
de . . . transierat (lines 4-5)?
in the dead of night
in late morning
in the early evening
just before sunrise
8. Identify profectus in its context (line 4/5).
perfect active participle
present active participle
perfect active infinitive
perfect passive participle
9. Which of the following best describes the
Helvetians according magnam . . . concidit
10. Identify the form mandarunt (line 6).
3rd plural present active indicative
3rd plural imperfect active subjunctive
present active participle
3rd plural perfect active indicative
11. Which figure of speech occurs in mandarunt (line
12. What is the correct translation of cum . . . exisset
while it was leaving home
when it had left home
although it would have left home
when it had gone home
13. When had the previous encounter between the
Romans and the Tigurini occurred according to
patruum . . . miserat (lines 8-9)?
when Caesar's father had been killed
when Caesar's uncle the consul had fallen
a generation ago
after the consul's death
14. How would the Romans have viewed this
encounter (lines 8-9)?
as a stunning victory
as a temporary setback
as long-awaited vengeance
as utterly humiliating
15. What does Caesar claim not to know according to
sive . . .immortalium (line 9)?
whether there was a legal or political solution
the reason why events had thus unfolded
whether the gods favored his plan
what the gods were planning
16. What did Caesar claim had happened in this
previous encounter that related to him personally:
Quā . . . interfecerant (lines 10-12)?
His father-in-law had been an officer.
His great-grandfather-in-law had died.
His grandfather had died.
His great-grandfather-in-law had avenged the